Conditions for achieving maximum results
A number of solutions for a better quality at home life
The indoor climate in each building should be considered at design stage. Only then, it will be possible to achieve optimal comfort that positively affects both the health of the people in the building and their sensations and productivity. For optimal comfort, the following parameters must be within specified limits.
Ensuring good indoor climate
Achieving a healthy and pleasant indoor environment
According to European Standards, the indoor climate parameters have a direct relation to the energy consumption of a building. "If the occupants feel uncomfortable, they are likely to take action to improve their comfort, which can lead to changes in energy consumption", is written in EN 15251, where the parameters for indoor air climate are determined.
- Operative temperature
- 22±2°С during winter and 24±2°С during summer
- Levels of СО2
- up to 900ppm (ppm - parts per million when outside values are 400ppm)
- from 25% to 60%
- Day light
- ≥ 2% from the outside illuminance in the middle of a room
- Air age (infiltration)
- < 2h (0.6 air changes per hour)
Achieving optimal comfort
Measures for improveing indoor climate quality
Optimal comfort of a building can only be achieved if it is taken into account when designing it. With standard construction practice in Bulgaria, optimal comfort is not achieved by itself. In order to be achieved, people install additional appliances that only improve the quality of the indoor climate to a certain extent, but by using more energy. It would be far cheaper and healthier if in project are foreseen passive (not requiring energy) and active (energy-requiring) measures.
Heating/cooling systems and building insulation play a key role in achieving required temperature comfort. Energy-efficient buildings are designed so that these systems are only used in case of very low outdoor temperatures. Most of the time during winter period the heat comes from occupants, appliances and lighting used in the building.
Humidity inside a building affects health and comfort of its occupants. Optimal values of this indicator and non-admission of moisture in the building structure are best regulated by a ventilation system. It reduces humidity when is too high or increases it when is too low.
It is necessary mechanical ventilation to be provided for ensuring the extraction of the "dirty" indoor air and replacing it with a fresh one, rich in oxygen. When using mechanical ventilation system, fresh air is filtered so as to avoid external pollutants, which is especially important for people with respiratory problems and allergies.
The daylight in a building depends on size of the glazing, its location and shading. Daylight is largely related to the Sun heat that remains inside the building. Therefore, energy analysis should determine density and types of glazing as well as sun protection for protecting the building from overheating during summer, but allowing warming it up during winter.
Thanks to the ventilation systems, odors and pollutants are extracted so that they do not affect comfort and health of people.
Maintaining of parameters
Determining the best conditions
Maintaining the optimal values of these parameters, at low energy consumption cost, is possible if it is taken into account at the design stage of the building. Once set, the desired values are automatically controlled, which does not exclude the possibility of changing them according to the customer's needs or atmospheric anomalies.
Symptoms of bad indoor air quality
Human's health, comfort and productivity
Indoor air quality directly affects human's health, comfort and productivity. Most common health problems caused by bad indoor climate are allergies, asthma (caused mostly by moisture and mold), infectious diseases that spread through the air.
Architectural and engineering decisions for a building affect the health and well-being of the future occupants. We often do not realize that a number of health problems are caused by inappropriate heating, cooling, ventilation and isolation. People realize that floor heating is one of the most efficient and comfortable methods of heating the building. It provides a uniform distribution of air temperature in a room, unlike other types of heating, where the warmest is high, at the ceiling, and the coldest is low, at the floor. Floor heating systems are silent. Another advantage is that the area of dusting lowers its borders and is always 15-20 cm from the floor.
High levels of CO2 are perhaps the most widespread expression of poor indoor climate in buildings in Bulgaria due to the lack of adequate ventilation. In most buildings, it is done by fans in the bathrooms and by manually opening of windows, which is extremely inadequate, especially in the winter months. It has been proven that the high values of СО2 cause a feeling of tiredness and can reduce productivity with up to 15%, which is particularly important for offices, administrative buildings, schools and kindergartens. For example, in a bedroom occupied by two persons, CO2 levels at night may reach values of over 4000 ppm at recommended 900 ppm. This directly affects the quality of sleep, respectively of working capacity. In addition, with the exhaust of CO 2, water vapor is released, which by penetration into the structure can cause formation of mold.